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Mongol - Ghengis Khan dirhem

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Registered: August 2005
Location: Arizona USA
Posts: 2,356
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Purchased at auction from Frank Robinson (114 lot 362; $366), it was described as: MONGOLS, Genghis Khan, 1206-27 [AH 603 - 624], Billon Dirhem, AF/F-VF, one side somewhat off-center, minor weakness, silver color with some coppery toning. New information on the early series of Mongol coins during Chingis Khan [alt. spelling] is still coming out as new finds and scholarship allow. Like most coins of Genghis Khan this example does not bear his Tamgha, a personal symbol found on most later Mongol coins.
This appears to be in the design known as a Ghazna type which refers to the Khan as "The Great of the Great Khagan." Thus it is one step lower than the very rare issues that quote his name but much scarcer than the vast majority that are anonymous. This is a dirhem due to the silver content, other coins with the same legend, that are copper, are generally known as jitals. I admit that these denomination terms seem to be interchangeable depending on who's writing about them.
OB: Al Adil / Al Khagan / Al A'zam [The Great of the Great Khagan]; Rx; Name of the Abbaside Caliph in Bagdad. Album # 1969; Nyamaa # 5.
The following is from Steve Album's "Checklist" [2nd ed.]:
The Great Mongols, Chingiz Khan and his descendants, were not Muslims, but struck Islamic style coinage in the Muslim lands they conquered. They had no indigenous coinage, but some Mongol rulers had earlier produced Chinese style cash in parts of northern China they had occupied [Liao Dynasty]. As a general rule, they adopted the local currencies in each conquered area, changing only the inscriptions to suit the new political order.
THE TEXT BELOW REFERS TO JITALS, BASE METAL Fractionals of the Dirhem Above:

Most early Mongol coinage is anonymous, except for mention of the caliph. Each mint or group of adjacent mints maintained its own types and standards. Only the gold coinage is normally dated and often bears the mint name. The silver and copper coinage is usually undated, and some types are only conjecturally assigned to the Mongols...
further... Silver full dirhams were struck in both eastern Khurasan (especially Ghazna, Balkh & Herat), and in the Transcaucasian regions of the northwest (especially Tiflis and Tabriz), alongside half dirhams from the later region. ... Base metal jitals were struck only in eastern Khurasan and Sind, and often contain considerable amounts of lead and zinc in addition to copper.
From Steve Album [ Internet Auction 18 Lot# 475 Jital ] : GREAT MONGOLS: Chingiz Khan, 1206-1227, AE jital (4.07g) (Ghazna), ND, A-3713 (1969), Tye-329, anonymous type with title al-khaqan al-'adil al-a'zam on obverse, and citing the 'Abbasid caliph al-Nasir on reverse., VF. This and other jitals of the period probably contain a small amount of silver and may also have had a very light silver-wash. This type is the only coin that is reasonably common and can be securely assigned to the lifetime of Genghis Khan, though of course, without his name. This type is believed to have been struck AH618-619 (1221), during the Mongol chase of Mangubarni to the Indus River, when a Mongol military base was established at or near Ghazna.
Early Medieval & Islamic
ISLAMIC, Mongols. Great Khans. temp. Chingiz (Genghis), AH 602-624 / AD 1206-1227. Jital (Bronze), citing Chingiz as 'al-Khaqan al-Adil al-Azam ('Khan of Khans, the Just, the Supreme' in Arabic) and the Abbasid caliph al-Nasir li-Din Allah (1180-1225), Mongol military base around or in Ghazna, AH 618 = AD 1221. Album # 1969.
This type was struck during the Mongol chase of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last of the Khwarezm Shahs, to the Indus River. Jalal was defeated decisively in spring 1221 in the "Battle of the Indus", but to Genghis' great disappointment, the Shah escaped to India. He remained a constant thorn in the Mongols' side until he was assassinated by an unknown Kurd in the Mayyafarikin mountains in 1231. [ Leu Numismatik; Web Auction 14; Lot: 2009 ; Date: 12.12.2020 ]
· Date: January 10, 2021 · Views: 1,158 · Filesize: 140.3kb · Dimensions: 900 x 460 ·
Keywords: Mongol - Ghengis Khan dirhem

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